State of the Browser, 2016

It’s been a while since we posted on here*, and while the JBrowse-o-sphere has not been silent (there’s been plenty of chatter on the gmod-ajax mailing list and the GitHub issues tracker, for example) we think it’s high time for an update on the main site.

In part, this update is triggered by the (near-)completion of a state-of-the-JBrowse paper, which should be published soon. That paper describes what’s been happening in JBrowse over the past few years, code-wise. You can get a sense of that from the release notes. The (complementary) goal of this blog post is to give some idea of the direction we’re headed in.

Kicking the Perl Habit

JBrowse was the spiritual child of GBrowse, and GBrowse was built on the good ship Perl. Sadly, those days belong to a glorious past that has not yet been resurrected in the name of vintage kitsch. Speaking as a hacker who still dreams in Perl (and sometimes talks to myself in Perl while riding the train) I’m proud to be a national monument and I’d be happy to share my memories of the 80’s with you… but even I have to admit that I teach Python to my undergrads these days. They need jobs.

The ancient Perl timbers that support JBrowse are showing their age; and that’s why we’ve been adding more and more features that allow the JBrowse client to leave its BioPerl exoskeleton behind. Most of that exoskeleton is oriented toward slurping data out of object relational databases like Chado, or from flatfiles, so as to generate JBrowse-specific JSON-based index files (using Nested Containment Lists) that allow the client to do fast range queries on feature sets.

Fans of Chado need not worry: the JBrowse distribution will keep that functionality around, but the Perl part is less fundamental: the JavaScript client can load many file formats natively now, and can make use of other (more standard) indices, like tabix and faidx in SAMTools.

A direct benefit of this is that it’s possible to use JBrowse like a desktop browser, opening local files directly; either by firing up a web browser and pointing it at a JBrowse instance, or by using the new desktop version of JBrowse (built using Electron). The reduced dependency on JBrowse-specific indexing scripts also makes it conceptually a little simpler to feed data to a JBrowse instance from a server.

Repos, Man

Several plugins have been developed for JBrowse and Apollo (indeed, Apollo itself is also a plugin) and there are more on the way, both from our team and from third parties. To help admins find cool plugins, we are developing a plugin repository which will allow developers to register their plugins at

We are also close to publishing a registry of publicly accessible JBrowse instances. Over the past year, our analytics suggest that there are at least 2,600 active JBrowse hosts out there. Keeping a central, accessible list of active instances will help model organism databases and other small genome projects become more “discoverable”.

Fresh Tracks

We’re constantly adding new kinds of track, and there are several in the pipeline. The latest release has NeatFeatures, which finally brings intron hat cartoons to JBrowse.

Mitch Skinner, the visionary and pragmatist who was the first full-time lead dev of JBrowse, once said that “HTML can draw any shape you want, as long as it’s a rectangle”. Well, that may have been true back in the day, but 97% of web users now have Canvas support (and 99.9% of JBrowse users), and we feel comfortable drawing some diagonal lines.

We’re also working on SVG-based tracks that remove some of the ancient legacy limitations imposed on track classes, and can play nicely with d3 for some truly cool viz. Watch for new SVG-based tracks for visualizing population-level variation in the near future.

Tips for the Server

JBrowse can be described as a static site generator: after running the indexing tools, you don’t need to execute any code on the server. Just serve up the indices to the client as static files, and you’re set. This has some important benefits, notably for performance (it relieves the processing burden on the server and makes distributed servers much easier) and security (e.g. you can in principle use a super-secure webserver like publicfile). However, it’s also limiting for some applications.

There’s nothing stopping admins from setting up JBrowse as part of a larger dynamic web application, and there are plenty of hooks in the JavaScript code that allow developers to interface to dynamic code. However, up until this point, a systematic “recommended” way to write dynamic JBrowse apps has been lacking.

That’s going to change soon: JBrowse is finally growing a server-side. Although, in keeping with our general philosophy about how to do things on the bioinformatics web, our approach to this will be minimal — and compatible with a wide range of different back-ends.

We’re going to begin with basic infrastructure that most server applications will need: specifically, pub-sub messaging for notifying the client of updates. We then want to build some analysis capabilities into JBrowse — or, more precisely, hook JBrowse up to existing analysis engines. Everyone’s favorite workflow manager Galaxy will be top of the list. As usual (and this is something we view as a good sign), the community has gotten there before us: Eric Rasche, who also built an excellent Docker image for JBrowse, has developed a JBrowse Galaxy tool, which we will certainly be hoping to build on.

We recognize that there are other web-based job control shells apart from Galaxy, and some (e.g. iPlant) are already working with JBrowse. Our current plan is to write a (thin) abstraction layer that allows JBrowse to talk to Galaxy or other web shells for job control.

Dashes and Mashes

We think a big part of the future of JBrowse is in building rich, integrated bioinformatics web apps of which the genome browser is just one component. The kind of thing that used to be called a mashup but now (rather more professionally and stylishly) is known as a dashboard.

OK, technically mashups and dashboards are different: a mashup combines visualizations of multiple data sources, while a dashboard combines multiple controls in a single interface. Bioinformatics web apps, though, typically do both.

Some examples of what one might do with this sort of hybrid:

  • a phylogeography dashboard, combining genome/popgen views with geographical views (e.g. Google Maps)
  • a systems biology dashboard, combining genome view with gene network/ontology browsers, allowing visualization of RNA-seq experiments at pathway level (e.g. using Cytoscape) as well as the reference-aligned reads
  • a molecular evolution dashboard, with integrated browsing of phylogenetic gene trees and multiple sequence alignments (e.g. using BioJS components), alongside species trees and syntenic relationships between genomes

And so on… now, to be clear, lots of people are dreaming about, or doing, things like this. We want to make JBrowse play well with those efforts, and with future dashboards/mashups in the same vein. Some critical steps are required.

First, on the UI side, JBrowse must play nicely inside a DIV or inside a jQuery element (this is in process), and must be 100% programmatically controllable via the JavaScript API (this is mostly true already).

Second, on the server side, some aspects of the basic infrastructure need to be fleshed out; for example, notifications of changes to the sequence and/or track sets. As noted above, this is very much a part of our plans.

Social, Personal

Like Mark Zuckerberg, we really just want to connect people. Some of the coolest applications that has been built with JBrowse are the collaborative ones for distributed and/or crowdsourced curation of genome features, like Apollo and Afra. We’re also very excited to make JBrowse work better with personal genomics sites like

We want to enable more stuff like this, and are offering several Google Summer of Code projects this year. At least one of these is social in nature (developing a chat plugin for JBrowse) and another, offered by François Moreews and Thomas Darde, uses Docker to deploy personal JBrowse instances.

That’s All For Now

Watch this space for more updates!


Updated 2/25: There are a lot of issues still on the GitHub tracker that we plan to get to but I haven’t mentioned here. James Gilbert on Twitter asked about flipping the view to the reverse strand, which is issue #170 on GitHub. Rest assured that just because I didn’t necessarily mention every last one of them here, that doesn’t mean we’ve forgotten about them. We do still plan to get to those issues and to keep upgrading and refining the UI.

* OK, there was the 1.12 release, but you know. A while since we just pontificated for the hell of it.

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